Hanley

HANLEY AREA 

In 1775, Yates' map records the townships of  'Handley Green and Shelton.' The pottery industry took off with the construction of the Trent and Mersey Canal in 1777, the associated development of Wedgwood's potteries at nearby Etruria, and then the opening of the Caldon Canal. In 1783, local businessmen formed a corporate charter for Hanley, with Shelton it became a market town under an Act of 1813, and by 1830 it was considered one of the largest towns in the area.

Hanley before 1930
Photo: source unknown

BOTTLE OVENS LONG SINCE GONE


Hanley
J & G Meakin Ltd., Eastwood Works from Lichfield Street
The Eastwood Works supported 7 bottle ovens, (3 biscuit, 4 glost)
The Seven Sisters
Source: from their Centenary Booklet   Date: 1951

Hanley
J & G Meakin, Eastwood Works, from the canal
The Seven Sisters (but you can only see 6 in this view)

Hanley
J & G Meakin Eagle Pottery from the air
Source: from their Centenary Booklet   Date: May 1950 

Hanley
George L. Ashworth Bros Ltd
Photo: source unknown  Date: c1950

Hanley
Masons Ironstone
Photo: Terry Woolliscroft Collection   Date: July 1975

Hanley
Broad Street bottle ovens
Photo: source unknown  Date: unknown

Shelton, Hanley
Swinnertons, College Road, opposite St Marks Church
Photo: source unknown   Date: 1950s

Shelton, Hanley
Swinnertons Victoria Pottery, College Road
Photo: source unknown  Date: unknown

Shelton, Hanley
Hanley Park
Brown Westhead and Moor later Cauldon Potteries
Photo: postcard?  Date: unknown

Etruria, Hanley
Wedgwood factory
Photo: source unknown  Date: 1960?

Etruria, Hanley
Wedgwood factory
Photo: source unknown  Date: unknown

Etruria, Hanley
Wedgwood factory
Photo: source unknown  Date: unknown

Etruria, Hanley
Updraught stack type bottle ovens during demolition at the Wedgwood Factory
Photo: Source unknown   Date: Unknown

Etruria, Hanley
Updraught ovens.
Twyfords Earthenware Sanitaryware Etruria Works, Garner Street
Photo: screenshot taken from the Twyford Film  Date: 1929

Etruria, Hanley
Twyfords Sanitaryware
Bottle ovens under construction
Date: February 1921

BOTTLE OVEN and KILN with COLLAPSED CHIMNEYS 

Falcon Pottery   
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-stoke-staffordshire-17209042

J. K. Weatherby & Sons Ltd.  The firm was founded in 1891 and the existing factory was built in 1906. Four ovens are known to have existed on the works but only two remain:
1) Updraught hovel oven - its hovel collapsed, February 2012
2) Decorator's muffle kiln - its chimney collapsed earlier than the hovel oven, blown down in a gale , unknown date.

The large, squat, glost bottle oven was last fired in 1965 and subsequently used for the storage of empty biscuit saggars and wood wool. The firing chamber  stood off-centre within the hovel and was probably rebuilt sometime in its history. This is a large firing chamber with 10 firemouths. At one time it was equipped with modern thermocouples to measure the temperature inside the firing chamber when being it was fired.

The small muffle kiln oven was used as a "hardening on kiln" and probably an enamel kiln. The muffle chamber is approached from the yard via a small workshop which would presumably have served as a placing room. Two 'stable' type cast iron doors backed with firebrick blocks were in position at the entrance to the chamber in 1975. Both are badly rusted and immovable.



Hanley
J. K. Weatherby & Sons Ltd., Falcon Pottery, Town Road
Updraught hovel oven with adjacent muffle kiln (chimney missing)
Photo: Courtesy of Staffordshire Past Track 1976 more here>
The hovel collapsed in February 2012

Hanley
J. K. Weatherby & Sons Ltd, Falcon Pottery, Town Road
Photo: Courtesy of Steve Shaw  Date: February 2012, two weeks before the collapse
 @shawsteve5 Artisan potter, painter, musician



Hanley
J. K. Weatherby & Sons Ltd, Falcon Pottery, Town Road
Firemouths of the small muffle kiln
Photo: Courtesy of Steve Shaw  Date: February 2012
@shawsteve5  Artisan potter, painter, musician

BOTTLE OVENS and KILNS STILL STANDING,  WITH THEIR CHIMNEYS

Johnson Bros., Trent Sanitaryware Pottery   
Two flint calcining kilns at the site of Johnson Bros., Trent Pottery sanitaryware factory, Hanley. Between Botteslow Street and Eastwood Road. Now surrounded by a housing estate. In 1975 there were 3. Before flint can be added to the pottery body recipe it had to be crushed to a very fine powder. In their raw state flint pebbles are impossible to crush as they are too hard. When they are calcined, or burnt, they become brittle and can be crushed and ground with ease. Flint pebbles and coal slack were loaded in alternate layers into the bowl of the oven, below ground level. One ton of slack was used for 20 tons of flint. The materials were lit at the bottom of the kiln and allowed to burn naturally. After about 2 days a sufficiently high temperature of about 900°C to 1,000°C would have been reached to transform the flint, and the coal would have burned away. When cool enough to handle the brittle flints were drawn from the opening at the base of the bowl and sent to be crushed and ground.

Hanley
Johnson Bros. Trent Pottery
Flint Calcining Kiln. Open doorway for charging the kiln.
Photo: Terry Woolliscroft Collection  Date: July 1975

Hanley
Johnson Bros. Trent Pottery
Three flint calcining kilns with one in the process of demolition
Date: 20 March 1976

Hanley
Johnson Bros. Trent Pottery
Between Botteslow Street and Eastwood Road
From the air. On the left of the kilns is the Caldon Canal
Date approx: 2015

Hanley 
Johnson Bros, Trent Pottery
Flint calcining kilns
Photo: Julian Read Collection  Date: April 2017

Hanley
Johnson Bros. Trent Pottery
Flint calcining kilns
Photo: Courtesy of Philip Shallcross Collection  Date: March 2019


Smithfield Pottery, Warner Street   
Updraught potter's bottle oven. Hovel only, no firing chamber. Former Smithfield Pottery, Warner Street, Hanley. Clearly visible from the Potteries Way ringroad. Late 19th Century brick, slate roofs, single ridge and two gable ends.  When surveyed in 1975 it had a small enamel kiln inside the hovel. It has been used as part of a brush making company. Later was converted to a restaurant and jazz club. In 2019 used as offices.

Bottle Ovens Smithfield Pottery Potteries Way Hanley 2015 photo courstesy Potteries Bottle Kilns Facebook page
Hanley
Smithfield Pottery, Warner Street/Potteries Way ringroad.
 Photo: Courtesy of  'Potteries Bottle Kilns' page on Facebook  Date: 2015

Hanley
Smithfield Pottery, Warner Street/Potteries Way ringroad.
Photo: Courtesy of Philip Shallcross Collection  Date: April 2019

Hanley
Robert Sherwin Ltd., brush manufacturer
Smithfield Works
Photo: source unknown  Date: unknown

Hanley
Smithfield Works
Looking up, inside the empty hovel
Photo: Andy Perkin, Potteries Heritage Society Date: June 2019 



Dudsons, Hope Street 
The Dudson Company was established by Richard Dudson in 1800, but went out of business in Summer 2019. One bottle oven remains standing but only the hovel only remains - the firing chamber has gone. The hovel is free standing in the central yard of what was the factory premises. It is the sole remaining oven of three which are believed to have existed. The hovel bears a plaque which would indicate that it was originally constructed in l872 at which time Dudsons were mainly involved in the production of ornamental ware, including figures. The hovel itself is 60' high and has an overall diameter of 33'3". The oven is assumed to have been an updraught with hovel and firing chamber - similar to the layout at Gladstone POttery in Longton. The bottle oven has not been fired since the Second World War. The hovel now houses a magnificent museum of Dudson.

Hanley
Dudson's, Hope Street
Photo: courtesy Dudson Date: c2010

Hanley
Dudson's, Hope Street
Photo: Terry Woolliscroft Collection  Date: Dec 2018

Hanley
Dudson's Hope Street
Photo by Sid Meir, courtesy Ian Mood Date: 1970



Jesse Shirley's Bone and Flint Mill, Etruria   
Opened in 1857, Jesse Shirley's bone flint mill is the only remaining operational steam driven potters' mill in the world. It operated until 1972 producing ground bone, flint and Cornish Stone used by the pottery industry. It also produced bone meal used by the agricultural industry to improve soil. Fully restored between 1978 and 1990 the mill is driven by an 1820s Bolton and Watt rotative beam engine.

It is one of the oldest still working and may be the oldest still driving machinery for which it was installed. Steam is raised by a hand-stoked Cornish boiler built at nearby Cliffe Vale in 1903. The site’s historical significance was recognised in 1975 when it was designated a Scheduled Ancient Monument with the buildings being Grade 2* listed. The site was officially opened to the public by Fred Dibnah on 6th April, 1991. It continues to be maintained and operated by volunteers.

One chimney with two firing chambers

Etruria - Hanley
Jesse Shirley's bone and flint mill, Etruria Locks
Calcining kiln - one chimney with two chambers
Photo: Terry Woolliscroft Collection  Date: 2018

Hanley - Etruria
Jesse Shirley's bone and flint mill, Etruria Locks
http://www.etruriamuseum.org.uk/
Photo: courtesy Glyn Baker, Geograph

Cross section through a flint kiln
Photo courtesy Shirley's Bone and Flint Mill




Lichfield Street - Imperial Court, Joiner's Square Works, formerly Bullers   
Updraught bottle oven, stack type. Formerly Bullers Insulators, part of Allied Insulators Group. Now incorporated in the Imperial Court residential complex after refurbishment in 1999.

Hanley
Imperial Court, Joiners Square
Photo: Courtesy of Philip Shallcross Collection  Date: August 2019
Hanley
Imperial Court, Joiners Square
Photo: Courtesy Andy Perkin, Potteries Heritage Society  Date: July 2019
Hanley
Imperial Court, Joiners Square
Photo: Courtesy Andy Perkin, Potteries Heritage Society  Date: July 2019